Additive Manufacturing (3D Printing)
In Trending PhD Research Topics, Additive Manufacturing is a method of printing an entire object or a material in 3D (3-dimension). It constructs the material layer by layer depend on the input design from a designing software like AutoCAD. Hence, this method is known with the name of 3D Printing. This technique is employ through many manufacturing industries present across different countries for the last 30 years and even more than that.
The field of additive manufacturing is growing every day thus brings new concepts and innovations like new approaches, new materials etc. One such enhancement of the 3D printing technique is the 4D printing technique.
4D Printing – Trending PhD Research Topics
In Trending PhD Research Topics, 4D printing is the process through which a 3D printed object gets converted itself to another structure. It over the influence of external parameters such as temperature, light or other environmental stimuli. This concept is introduced in 2014.
Difference Between 3D and 4D Printing
Obviously, 4D Printing has one additional dimension on comparing it with the 3D Printing. 3D Printing is aboutrepeating a 2D structure, layer by layer in a print path, from the bottom to the top, layer by layer until a 3D volume is created. 4D Printing is an improved version of 3D printing transforms over a period of time. Thus, a fourth dimension of time is added to the printed object. So, the ability of an object to change its shape over time is considering as the main advantage of 4D Printing over 3D Printing.
A 4D-printed gripper grabs an object when the optimum temperature is reached over a period of time
A 4D printed object can print in 3D shape. The difference is that the 4D Printing technology uses programmable and advanced materials that implements a different functionality by adding hot water, light or heat. As a result, a non-living object can alter its 3D shape and behaviour on its own, over a certain period of time.
Work Flow of 4D Printing
In Trending PhD Research Topics, 4D printing technology uses commercial 3D printers, such as Polyjet 3D printers. The input is a “smart material”, that can be either a hydrogel or a shape memory polymer. Thanks to their thermomechanical properties and other material properties, smart materials . It given the attributes of shape change and are differentiate from the common 3D printing materials.
On the other hand, objects can print with 3D Printing technology, are characterized through their rigidity. It means that the 3D printing objects are going to keep their 3D shape once printed.
Working Flow of 4D Printing
A View for the Future – 5D Printing
5D printing is a new branch of additive manufacturing. In this technology, the print head & the printable object have five degrees of freedom. Instead of the flat layer, it produces curved layers. In this process, the print part moves while the printer head is printing. So, printing undertakes the curve path of the part being print rather than moving through a straight layer as in the case of 3D printers in trending PhD Research Topics. The main advantage of this technology is to create a part with a curved layer with improved strength.
Instead of 3 axes used in 3D printing, 5D printing technologies use five-axis printing technique which produces objects in multiple dimensions. In this five-axis printing, the print bed can move back and forth on two axes besides of X, Y and Z axis of the 3D printing technologies. Thus, this technology is highly capable of producing stronger products in comparison to parts. It made through 3D printing Trending PhD Research Topics.
P.I. Kalyaahna Sundaram,
B.E. (Mech), M.E. (CAD/CAM),