In Paragraph Writing, the autonomous driving of car without any involvement of a driver is known as automatic driving or a driverless car. In fact, totally there are five different levels present in the automatic driving of car. It depends on the interaction among the car, driver and the surroundings.
Stages in Automatic Driving
In Paragraph Writing, the development of autonomous driving, experts have identifies into five stages. Specifically, every degree explains how far a car takes over from its driver’s duties. As well as, obligations and how the car and driver communicate. The five phases relates to the automatic driving of car are explains below.
Progression from Driver Only Car to Driverless Robot Taxi
Stages 0 to 5 are describe by their relative system size. Level 0, “No Automation” is where the driver operates the vehicle from a driver assistance program without any intervention.
Nonetheless, the tables turn into stage 5, where the vehicle can move without any human interaction.Stage 3 “Highly Automatic Driving,” stage 4 “Fully Automatic Driving” and level 5 “Full Automation” are still in the development stage.Stage 1 driver support systems are very common today and are useful in all existing BMW models.
All BMW cars actually offer level one functionality, and many are now considering level two.The new BMW Personal CoPilot driver support systems assist drivers on the road and provide extra safety and comfort.Definitions of this include the Stop & Go feature Active Cruise Control, which sets the distance to the vehicle in front of you independently.And then there’s the Collision and Pedestrian Warning for City Brake Activation, which avoids automatic braking accidents.
Partly Automated Driving
Functions that allow partial automation are already a fact and are mounting on the street in the new BMWs. Semi-autonomous driving aid devices like the Steering and Lane Control Assistant, and Traffic Jam Assistant, make driving a lot easier every day. In fact, we will immediately stop, drive and pick over the steering as comparing to level 1.
Highly Automated Driving
For conditional automation systems, in certain traffic situations, such as on motorways, the vehicle will be able to drive freely for long distances. However, within a few seconds, the driver must be able to take back payment, for example at road construction sites.
Fully Automated Driving
Level 4 is known to be fully autonomous driving, even though a human driver may still ask for guidance, and the vehicle still has a cockpit.By level 4, most driving conditions can manage separately by the driver.Level 4 technology is built so that a vehicle can cope with highly complex urban driving situations, such as the sudden appearance of construction sites, without any intervention from driver.
Nevertheless, the driver must stay healthy to drive and be able to take over control if necessary, yet the driver may briefly sleep.If the driver lacks an alert system, the vehicle has the right, for example by pulling over, to push into safe conditions.Although level 4 still needs a driver’s intervention, in the next, final level of autonomous driving, vehicles will not need drivers at all.
Full Automation (No Driver!)
Drivers don’t have to be fit to drive and don’t even have a license to drive. All operating duties are done by the driver – there is not even a cockpit. Therefore, any person in the car becomes a rider, for example, opening up new opportunities for independence for people with disabilities.
At this level, cars can clearly have to meet strict safety requirements and will only travel in populated areas at relatively low speeds. Hence, these can also drive on highways, but they will initially only useful in designated urban areas.
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