Research Topics: Brain and its complexity that it poses to the researchers – A discussion with reference to various abnormalities and uniqueness of the brain along with its new era development
- In the first place, the most important and perhaps the most complex organ of the human body is the brain. It controls not only all the senses but also the various functions of our body. Not to mention that the human brain weighs only about 3 lbs and is the controlling part of the whole body. It is enclosed in a hard bony shell for protection, called a skull. Interpreting information collected from different parts of the body and preparing the body for the generation of an appropriate response are some of the physiological tasks of the brain. Cerebrum, cerebellum, diencephalon, and brainstem are the primary brain divisions.
- For centuries, PhD Research and scientists have been trying their best to thoroughly explore the human brain structure, but until recently they have been unable to examine it completely and think it something very hard to accomplish. In fact, many of its functions still remain least understood, such as thinking.
Complex Brain Structure With Its Various Functional Parts
First, based on their placement in the front, middle or back areas of the skull, the human brain can be divided into three major parts, namely, forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain. These broad divisions are comprised of different smaller divisions, with each having a specific role to play. It oft happens that different parts share responsibility for the completion of the same task. In this way, the overall job of the brain is done in a beautiful manner. In case of a disorder or malfunctioning of any of the structures, the diagnosis is usually a very complex and demanding task. So, you should take special care of this organ. Knowledge of the structure and function of various brain divisions will help you in this regard. Some of the functional parts will be discussed below:
Centre for Processing Sensory Information: The forebrain is considering as the most important part of the brain because, on account of its functioning, it distinguishes humans from other animals. This part is responsible for processing sensory information, among different sensory organs, such as eyes, nose, ears, tongue, and skin. It is further divided into two parts, namely, diencephalon and telencephalon. The diencephalon contains thalamus and hypothalamus which control sensory and autonomic processes. Telencephalon contains the biggest part of the brain, called cerebrum.
Mediating between Hindbrain and Forebrain: The midbrain acts as a bridge to transmit signals from hindbrain and forebrain. These signals mostly come from the senses of touch and hearing organs, i.e. skin and ears, respectively. The upper part of the midbrain is called optic tectum, which serves to integrate visionary and auditory data.
Control Centre for Visceral Functions: The hindbrain can further divide into 3 parts: medulla oblongata, pons, and cerebellum. The main function of this human brain structure is to control certain visceral functions in the body (including heart rate, breathing, and blood pressure). Looking at the tasks assigned to the pons, it serves to monitor the sleep and waking up functions while working in coordination with other parts of the nervous system. The cerebellum coordinates the movements of arms and legs and also plays a role in processing the sensory information that it receives from visual and auditory systems.
Brain Divisions and Their Functions: – Apart from the basic divisions of forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain, the master organ of your body can also be divided along other dimensions. Here follows a precise description of some structurally and functionally important parts of the brain.
Brain anatomy with special reference to its parts structure and functions
Dissertation Leading Research Paths In Brain
- As a matter of fact, we had even come across the development of a brain-computer interface (BCI) (Pfurtscheller et al., 2000) based on recognition of subject-specific EEG patterns. E.g. for cursor control. In a number of on-line experiments, various methods for EEG feature extraction and classification have been evaluated by them.
- Furthermore, “The level of neural activity we are seeing is unprecedented in vitro,” says Alysson Muotri, a biologist at the University of California, San Diego. “We are one step closer to have a model that can actually generate these early stages of a sophisticated neural network.” In the same fashion, (Trujillo et al., 2019) even developed a working mini-brain. By putting them in a culture that mimics the environment of brain development. The stem cells differentiate into different types of brain cells and self-organize into a 3D structure resembling the developing human brain.
- This work tends to discuss mainly the Structural and transcriptional changes during early brain maturation follow fixed developmental programs defined by genetics. However, whether this is true for functional network activity remains unknown, primarily. Due to experimental inaccessibility of the initial stages of the living human brain. Here, we developed human cortical organoids that dynamically change cellular populations during maturation and exhibited consistent increases in electrical activity over the span of several months. The spontaneous network formation displayed periodic and regular oscillatory events that were dependent on glutamatergic and GABAergic signaling. The oscillatory activity transitioned to more spatiotemporally irregular patterns, and synchronous network events resembled features. Similar to those observed in preterm human electroencephalography. These results show that the development of structured network activity in a human neocortex model may follow stable genetic programming. Our approach provides opportunities for investigating and manipulating the role of network activity in the developing human cortex.
Concluding Statement – Research Topics
Brain nature remains to be one of the critical questions that the human has as a whole. This complexity nature makes it one among the trending PhD Research Topics of these days so that many philosophers and researchers of this decade take up this kind of Research Topics domains of the brain for contributing towards it.
 Pfurtscheller, G., Neuper, C., Guger, C., Harkam, W., Ramoser, H., Schlogl, A., . . . Pregenzer, M. (2000). Current trends in Graz brain-computer interface (BCI) research. IEEE transactions on rehabilitation engineering, 8(2), 216-219.
 Trujillo, C. A., Gao, R., Negraes, P. D., Gu, J., Buchanan, J., Preissl, S., . . . Chaim, I. A. (2019). Complex Oscillatory Waves Emerging from Cortical Organoids Model Early Human Brain Network Development. Cell stem cell.
Meenatchi Sunndhar P I, M.E., AMIE.
(With BEC Vantage (B2 in CEFR) – IELTS band score of 5.5 and Cambridge English Scale Score: 160)