Research (research) investigating your problem for which solution is sort for. The research is not a new thing for mankind because researches lead to human evolution (technological development). It will be a tool for Building Knowledge and for Facilitating Learning. The University of Germany played a major role in the 1830’s Sweden major PhD revolution which encourages scholars to do several types of research as a continuous process. In India the PhD revolution was taking place after 1990’s and in 2000 it is stabilized further it become mandatory now.
- Empirical Analytical research
- Descriptive argumentative research
EMPIRICAL –AN EVIDENCE BASED RESEARCH
Strong statistical analysis strengthens the empirical research compare to other type of researches. Data place a major role in this type of study research. The perfect/relevant data will be obtained if the research scholars have knowledge about following.
- Purpose and scope of the study research
- Research Questions
- Framing relevant questions
- Selecting respondents for the study
- Type of research Quantitative or Qualitative
- Sample to take for research -10% of the total samples is must for perfect outcome
- Method of data collection
- Type of data
Data Analysis & Interpretations
Collection of data which can be analyzed and interpreted to answers to research questions or increase knowledge the research topic for completing the dissertation reports.
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS – GENERAL VIEW
Statistical analysis provides strengths and empirical evidence for which research scholars, Academicians sought for.
Visual presentation of data:
Descriptive and graphical analysis provides the easy understanding about our data. Important to realize, easy visual representation of data organized and categorized comparisons between two or more categories of data, changes over time comparisons.
Type of tests:
- Non-Parametric Test
- Parametric Test
Data used for non-parametric tests:
- Ordinal data (Eg. Likert scale)
- Nominal data (Eg. gender)
Various Non-parametric Tests
Below the various tests and its purposes are listed
- Mann-Whitney or Wilcoxon rank sum test – Finding averages of 2 independent groups
- Kruskal-Wallis test – Finding averages of 3+ independent groups
- Wilcoxon signed rank test- Finding average difference between paired samples e.g psychological well-being before and after yoga exercises
- Friedman Test-Finding more than 3 measurement on same factors
- Chi square test- Assessing the relationship between two categorical variables
- Spearman’s correlation coefficient- Assessing the relationship between two variables
Cronbach’s alpha- In fact, the measuring internal consistency (similar scores on each questions by respondents) of questions relate to same issue.
Data reduction and classification- Sorting relevant factors
Cluster based Analysis- Identify groups of similar factors
Data used for parametric tests:
- Continuous data (Eg. Heartbeat, blood sugar)
- Discrete data (Eg. No of dependent)
Various Non-parametric Tests
PhD mandatory norms are formed for teaching scholars because the academicians have to increase their knowledge continuously with their industrial domains or with their interested area.
Research scholars just want to fulfill the institutions norms first and the knowledge devolopment becoming next or optional with scholors.
Research is misguided, purpose of research, thesis writing service is loosed and the importance of the research is not understood by the research scholars. Research scholars just want to fulfill the institutions norms first and the knowledge devolopment becoming next or optional with scholors.
The valuable researches will encourage students/scholars to involve in research and the research community will be increase automatically.